تبعات سیاسی و امنیتی نظریه مسؤلیت حمایت در کشور سوریه

نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی حقوق بین‌الملل دانشگاه پیام نور ایران، تهران

2 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، دانشکده حقوق و الهیات، گروه علوم سیاسی

چکیده

مخاصمات مسلحانه در سوریه منجر به کشته شدن ده­ها هزار و آوارگی میلیون­ها سوری شده است. تلاش دولت سوریه و جامعه بین­المللی برای بازگرداندن امنیت غیرنظامیان مانع جنایت علیه بشریت و اقدام غیرانسانی گروه‌های مسلح نشده است. بر اساس نظریه مسوولیت حمایت، اگر دولت دربرخورد با جنایات غیرانسانی جمعی، ناکارآمد شود یا خود دولت محرک جنایات غیر­انسانی جمعی باشد، وظیفه حمایت از مردم برعهده­ جامعه­ بین­المللی قرار می­گیرد.
ایده «مسئولیت حمایت» در سال 2005 در اجلاس سران توسط مجمع عمومی به‌طور رسمی پذیرفته شد.این نظریه با توجه به تجارب موفق و ناموفق مداخلات بشر­دوستانه در دهه 1990 در صورت بدون نتیجه ماندن اقدامات صلح‌آمیز شورای امنیت در مواجهه با وضعیت‌های نقض فاحش، گسترده و سیستماتیک حقوق بشر، نسل‌کشی، جنایت یا تجاوز، اقدام نظامی یا اقدام کم‌شدت نظامی مانند ایجاد منطقه پرواز ممنوع یا مناطق امن را با هدف محافظت از مردم غیرنظامی در قالب رکن سوم نظریه مسئولیت حمایت و بدون مجوز شورای امنیت مجاز می‌داند. از آنجا که سو استفاده قدرت‌های جهانی از نظریه می‌تواند مبنای مداخله نظامی و تغییر رژیم در کشورهای ضعیف را فراهم کند این مقاله تبعات سیاسی و امنیتی کاربست نظریه مسوولیت حمایت را برای سوریه از طریق روش کیفی داده بنیاد (Grounded theory) بررسی می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Political and Security Consequences of Responsibility to Protect in Syria

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Gholamalipour 1
  • Ali Ilkhanipour 2
1 Faculty Member of International Common Law
2 Assistant Professor of InternationalRelations
چکیده [English]

International Crisis in 1990s led to gross violation of human rights including mass atrocities, genocide, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing as well. at the end of 1990s it was crystal clear that Humanitarian Intervention doctrine can not give a proper answer to humanitarian disasters. The Humanitarian Intervention doctrine has no Powerful legal bases in International Customary Law and treaty based International Common Law. Deficiencies of this doctrine led the international community towards the Responsibility to Protect doctrine. According to R to P, sovereignty is not a privilege but a responsibility. R to P makes concentration on prevention and halt of crimes including “genocide, war crimes, crime against humanity”. It recognizes low intensified military measures in case of deadlock of UNSC and failure of all diplomatic means.
 Despite the fact that most of international organizations like UNHRC in their frequent reports and resolutions referred to commitment of atrocity crimes in Syria but due to lack of international support the doctrine was not implemented. This article  is about to discuss about the legality of Humanitarian Intervention in Syria and the latest development of this doctrine within the framework of Responsibility to Protect doctrine. Regarding the subject matter not only we survey the treaty base International Common Law, Customary International Common Law, UNSC and GA resolutions and documents, international legal texts, practices of states and International organizations but also the author survey the political and security consequences of R to P implementation in Syria.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Humanitarian Intervention
  • Responsibility to Protect
  • Syria
  • Security Council
  • Responsibility while Protection
  • non Intervention Principle
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