جایگاه ‌‌دیپلماسی ‌‌عمومی ‌‌در ‌‌سیاست ‌‌خاورمیانه‌ای ‌‌امریکا‌‌؛ ‌‌ با ‌‌تأکید ‌‌بر ‌‌دوران ‌‌اوباما

نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 ‌‌استادیار ‌‌روابط ‌‌ ‌‌علامه ‌‌طباطبائی

2 ‌‌کارشناس ‌‌ارشد ‌‌روابط ‌‌بین‌‌‌الملل

3 ارشد ‌‌مطالعات‌منطقه‌‌‌ای ‌‌دانشگاه ‌‌تهران‌‌

چکیده

چکیده
مقالة ‌‌حاضر ‌‌با ‌‌طرح ‌‌این ‌‌سؤال ‌‌که ‌‌دیپلماسی ‌‌عمومی ‌‌در ‌‌سیاست ‌‌خاورمیانه‌‌‌ای ‌‌امریکا‌‌ ‌‌با ‌‌تأکید ‌‌بر ‌‌دوران ‌‌ریاست ‌‌جمهوری ‌‌اوباما ‌‌چه ‌‌جایگاهی ‌‌داشته ‌‌است، ‌‌این ‌‌فرضیه ‌‌را ‌‌مطرح ‌‌کرده ‌‌است ‌‌که ‌‌دیپلماسی ‌‌عمومی ‌‌در ‌‌سیاست ‌‌خارجی ‌‌امریکا‌‌ ‌‌در ‌‌قبال ‌‌خاورمیانه ‌‌همواره ‌‌اهمیت ‌‌خاصی داشته ‌‌است؛ ‌‌از ‌‌آن‌جایی که ‌‌میراث ‌‌سیاست ‌‌خارجی ‌‌دولت ‌‌بوش ‌‌برای ‌‌اوباما ‌‌وجهة ‌‌عمومی ‌‌بسیار ‌‌ضعیف ‌‌ایالات ‌‌متحده ‌‌در ‌‌میان ‌‌مسلمانان ‌‌و ‌‌در ‌‌خاورمیانه ‌‌بود؛ ‌‌اوباما ‌‌یکی ‌‌از ‌‌ارکان ‌‌راهبرد ‌‌تغییر ‌‌خود ‌‌را ‌‌احیای ‌‌مدیریت ‌‌نرم‌‌‌افزاری ‌‌امریکا‌‌ ‌‌در ‌‌منطقة ‌‌خاورمیانه ‌‌معرفی ‌‌کرد. مثلاً، ‌‌در ‌‌سیاست ‌‌خاورمیانه‌ای ‌‌اوباما ‌‌در ‌‌قبال ‌‌بیداری ‌‌اسلامی ‌‌نیز، ‌‌اگرچه ‌‌هدف ‌‌اصلی ‌‌همان ‌‌معرفی ‌‌ارزش‌‌ها ‌‌و ‌‌ایده‌‌های ‌‌امریکا‌‌یی ‌‌است، ‌‌اما ‌‌با ‌‌یک ‌‌تغییر ‌‌رویکردی ‌‌این ‌‌هدف ‌‌نه ‌‌از ‌‌طریق ‌‌جنگ ‌‌ایده‌‌های ‌‌دوران ‌‌جرج ‌‌بوش، ‌‌بلکه ‌‌بر ‌‌پایة ‌‌منطق ‌‌چندجانبه‌‌گرایی ‌‌نمادین ‌‌با تأکید ‌‌بر ‌‌تأمین ‌‌منافع، ‌‌مدعی ‌‌ترویج ‌‌ارزش‌‌هایی ‌‌نظیر ‌‌دموکراسی ‌‌و ‌‌خواسته‌‌های ‌‌مردمی ‌‌است. ‌

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Place of Public Diplomacy in America’s Middle East Policy: With a Focus on Obama

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Adami 1
  • Mehdi Yazdanpanah 2
  • Hosseinali Tooti 3
چکیده [English]

The present paper is based on the question of the place of public diplomacy in America’s Middle East policy with a focus on the Presidency of Obama. It was hypothesized that public diplomacy always had great importance in America's foreign policy toward the Middle East. Since the Bush administration's foreign policy legacy for Obama was a poor public image of the United States among Muslims and in the Middle East, Obama introduced the recovery of America’s soft management in the Middle East as one of the pillars of his change strategy.
For example, in Obama's Middle East policy towards the Islamic Awakening, although the main objective is still presenting American values and ideas, there is a change of approach. The same goal is pursued not through the war of ideas as in the Bush era, but through the logic of symbolic multilateralism with an emphasis on interests, where they claim to advocate values such as democracy and popular demands.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: public diplomacy
  • soft power
  • barack obama
  • Middle East
  • Islamic awakening
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